LINGVOCULTURAL NATURE OF THE VERNACULAR NAMES OF AUTHENTIC DISHES IN ENGLISH, UKRAINIAN, FRENCH AND POLISH LANGUAGES OF THE XIXTH CENTURY
The article deals with the study of nominative units designating authentic dishes and drinks in the 19th century vernacular of the Ukrainian, English, French and Polish languages as well as the features revealing their linguistic and cultural specificity. The relevance of such research is determined by the lack of comprehensive studies of the gluttony phenomenon of in the Ukrainian, English, French and Polish languages, as well as the need to delineate the linguosemiotic and linguocultural parameters of the 19th century glutonic names. The author reveals the meaning of the term "nominative units linguocultural marking", defines its differential features; outlines the theoretical basis for the study of nominative units for the designation of authentic foods and beverages; analyzes metaphorical models of such nominations creation; finds out linguocultural features of glutonic names; describes the main methods of nomination (motivational features and the most productive word-forming models).
Food is an integral part of human life, yet it is specific to a particular national community. The vitality of any nation is reflected in its cuisine. The natural, social and economic conditions of each nation also affect what do people eat. The gastronomy area we are exploring is one of greatest nationally specific areas. With the development of agriculture and the market, national cuisine and gastronomy are constantly evolving, which is reflected in the vocabulary and phraseology of the language. Collective memory and national phraseology absorb and preserve sociocultural concepts and associations that are connected with product names and national cuisine that have evolved over the centuries.
Culture is a complex phenomenon that contains material, spiritual and social components. The very process of communication between people is carried out by means of a set of non-verbal (sound, visual, haptic, facial, gestural, kinetic, proxemic, etc.) and verbal or languge (oral and written) ways of transmitting culturally relevant information. Both verbal and non-verbal codes of culture reflect the external aspect of culture, while the internal aspect is related to its axiological system.
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